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MA: Awash National Park. Note: status of zoological collections unknown. Ethiopia.
MAC-APU: Ministerio de Agricultura y Cría, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agrícolas (INIA), Estación Experimental Apure, San Fernando de Apure. See also: INIA, MAC-PAY. Apure. Venezuela.
MAC-PAY: Ministerio de Agricultura y Cría, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agrícolas (INIA), Estación Experimental Amazonas, Puerto Ayacucho. Current as: MAC-PAY. See also: INIA, MAC-APU. Amazonas. Venezuela.
MACL: Museum of the Academia das Ciências de Lisboa, Lisboa [Lisbon]. Also known as: Maynense Museum. Includes: remnants of historical collections at the Maynense Museum and Real Museu da Ajuda, Lisboa (e.g., Cretaceous fishes from Ceará, Brazil). Note: nearly all zoological and mineralogical material transferred to Museu de Escola Politécnica de Lisboa (now MUHNAC) in 1859. Assigned here: MACL. See also: MUHNAC. Lisboa [Lisbon]. Portugal.
MACLPI: Ministerio de Agricultura y Cría, Sección de Pesca Interior y Piscicultura, Caracas. Note: indicated for type specimens of fishes described by Fernández-Yépez, but repository no longer extant. Districto Federal. Venezuela.
MACN: Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales “Bernardino Rivadavia”, Buenos Aires. Formerly: Museo Nacional de Argentina; Museo Nacional de Buenos Aires (MNBA). Includes: herpetological collections from Centro de Ecología aplicada del Litoral (HB) and Instituto Nacional de Microbiología “Carlos G. Malbrán” (CENAI/CHINM, INM, IINM); collection assembled by Julio Rafael Contreras for Programa de Biología Básica, Corrientes (now CFA); Colección Carlos Grisolía (CCG). Obsolete as: MBR, MNBA, SHNBA. Current as: MACN-Ict (fishes, Colección Nacional de Ictiología), MACN-He (herps, Colección Nacional de Herpetología); MACN-Pv (fossils, Colección Nacional de Paleovertebrados). Buenos Aires. Argentina.
MACS: Fossil Repository of the Agharkar Research Institute, Pune. Current as: MACS (fossils). Maharashtra. India.
MAD: Government Museum Chennai, Egmore, Chennai. Also known as: Madras Museum, Madras Government Museum (MGM). Obsolete as: MGM. Current as: MAD (herps). Tamil Nadu. India.
MADUG: Museo de Historia Natural “Alfredo Dugès”, Universidad de Guanajuato, Guanajuato. Includes: fishes and herps studied by Alfredo Augusto Delsescautz Dugès (1826–1910). Obsolete as: ADM. Current as: MADUG-IC (fishes, Colección Ictiológica), MDUG (herps). Guanajuato. Mexico.
MAFR: Museum Adolphi Friderici Regis. Also known as: Museum Adolpho-Fridericianum; Museum principis (MP). Note: personal collections kept separately by King Adolf Fredrik (1710–1771) at Ulriksdal and his wife Queen Lovisa Ulrika (1720–1782) at Drottningholm, including type specimens of Carl Linnaeus (some donated to UUZM in 1745); collections united at Drottningholm in 1773 (Museum Drottningholmense); generally, the king's collection (essentially specimens in alcohol) was transferred to Kungliga Vetenskapsakademien [Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences] (KVA) in 1801 and the queen's collection was transferred to Uppsala Universitet (UUZM) in 1803; KVA collections formally transferred to Naturhistoriska riksmuseet (NRM) in 1848. Also as: MDR, MP. See also: NRM, UUZM. Sweden.
MAJ: Musée d'archéologie du Jura, Lons-le-Saunier. Current as: MAJ (fossils). Jura. France.
MALF: Ministry of Agriculture, Lands and Fisheries, Fisheries Division, Port of Spain. Note: collection of marine fishes by staff. Current as: MALF (fishes). Trinidad. Trinidad & Tobago.
MAMM: Museo de Ciencias Naturales de la Región de Ansenuza “Aníbal Montes”, Miramar. Current as: MAMM-PV (fossils, Sección Paleovertebrados). Córdoba. Argentina.
MAMU: Macleay Museum, University of Sydney, Sydney. Note: fish type specimens and herps transferred to Australian Museum, Sydney (AMS). Current as: MAMU. Also as: MMS, MMUS, MU. See also: AMS. New South Wales. Australia.
MAN: Muséum-Aquarium de Nancy, Institut de Zoologie, Université de Nancy, Nancy. Formerly: L'Ancienne Université, among others. Also as: MZN, MZUVN. Meurthe-et-Moselle. France.
MAPA: Museu Anchieta de Ciências Naturais, Colégio Anchieta, Porto Alegre. Current as: MAPA (fishes). Rio Grande do Sul. Brazil.
MARNM: Maejo Aquatic Resources Natural Museum, Maejo University, Nong Han. Current as: MARNM (fishes). Chiang Mai. Thailand.
MAS: Private collection of Malcolm A. Smith, London. Note: some herps transferred to Natural History Museum, London (NHMUK). England. United Kingdom.
MAUS: Museo dell'Ambiente dell'Università del Salento [Museum of the Environment, University of Salento], Campus Ecotekne, Monteroni di Lecce. Current as: MAUS (fossils). Lecce. Italy.
MB: Museo Blochiano [Blochianum], Berlin. Note: private collection of Marcus Elieser Bloch; extant specimens at Museum für Naturkunde (ZMB). Berlin. Germany.
MBI: Marine Biomedical Institute, University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, Galveston. Texas. USA.
MBLC: Marine Biological Laboratory, Københavns Universitet [University of Copenhagen], Copenhagen. See also: NHMD. Denmark.
MBLUZ: Museo de Biología de la Universidad del Zulia, Maracaibo. Obsolete as: BLUZ. Current as: MBLUZ (fishes, herps), MBLUZ-P (fossils). Zulia. Venezuela.
MBM: Museo Provincial de Ciencias Naturales “Bartolomé Mitre”, Córdoba. Current as: MBM-PV (fossils). Córdoba. Argentina.
MBML: Instituto Nacional da Mata Atlântica (IN-MA), Coleção Zoológica, Santa Teresa. Formerly: Museu de Biologia Professor Mello Leitão, established in 1949. Current as: MBML (fishes, herps). Espírito Santo. Brazil.
MBRC: Marine Biology Research Centre, Tajura, Tripoli. Current as: MBRC (herps). Libya.
MBSH: Marine Biological Station Hurghada [Al-Ghardaqa], National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries (NIOF), Hurghada [Al-Ghardaqa]. Egypt.
MBUCV: Museo de Biología de la Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas. Note: founded in 1949; collections relocated to Instituto de Zoología y Ecología Tropical (IZET) in 1965; separate collections denoted by Roman numerals such as I (mammals), II (birds), III (reptiles), IV (amphibians) and V (fishes). Current as: MBUCV (fishes, herps), MBUCV-V (fishes), MBUCV-IV (amphibians), MBUCV-III (reptiles). See also: MIZA. Districto Federal. Venezuela.
MBZH: Museo y Biblioteca de Zoología, La Habana [Havana]. Note: current status unknown. La Habana. Cuba.
MC: Musée de Cruzy, Cruzy. Current as: MC (fossils). Hérault. France.
MCA: Museo Municipal de Ciencias Naturales “Carlos Ameghino”, Mercedes. Current as: MCA (fossils). Buenos Aires. Argentina.
MCCI: Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Carmagnola, Torino [Turin]. Note: distinct from Museo Regionale di Scienze Naturali di Torino (MRSN). Obsolete as: MCC, MCSNC, MSNC. Current as: MCCI (fishes, herps). Torino [Turin]. Italy.
MCCM: Museo de las Ciencias de Castilla-La Mancha, Cuenca. Includes: Las Hoyas collection. Current as: MCCM (fossils), HUE (fossils, Lo Hueco collection). Cuenca. Spain.
MCDRD: Muzeul Civilizatiei Dacice si Romane, Deva. Current as: MCDRD (fossils). Hunedoara. Romania.
MCF: Museo “Carmen Funes”, Plaza Huincul. Also known as: Carmen Funes Municipal Museum. Current as: MCF-PVPH (fossils). Neuquén. Argentina.
MCG: Museo del Colegio San José de Guanentá, San Gil. Santander. Colombia.
MCGS: Museo Archeologico e Naturalistico “Giuseppe Scarabelli”, Imola. Also known as: Museo Civico Giuseppe Scarabelli. Note: founded in 1857. Current as: MCGS (fossils). Bologna. Italy.
MCM: Mikasa City Museum, Mikasa. Current as: MCM (fossils). Hokkaido. Japan.
MCM: Museu Carlos Machado, Ponta Delgada, São Miguel Island. Current as: MCM (fishes). Azores. Portugal.
MCMC: Museum of the Calcutta Medical College, Kolkata [ex Calcutta]. Formerly: Medical College of Bengal, established in 1835. Note: status of natural history collections unknown; college closely associated with the Indian Museum in Calcutta (IMC, now ZSI) in late 1800s. Also as: MCMK. West Bengal. India.
MCN-USB: Museo de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Simón Bolívar, Caracas. Current as: MCN-USB (fossils). Districto Federal. Venezuela.
MCN: Museo de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Salta, Salta. In error as: MCMI. Current as: MCN (fossils), MCNI (fishes), MCN-UNSa (herps, although MCN used on specimen tags). Also as: CNS-V (fossils). Salta. Argentina.
MCN: Museu de Ciências Naturais, Fundação Zoobotânica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre. Formerly: Museu Rio-Grandense de Ciências Naturais (MRCN) established in 1955. Obsolete as: MRCN, MRGS. Current as: MCN (fishes, herps), MCN-PV (fossils). Also as: FZB-RS (Coleção de Peixes), FZBRS (herps), FZRG, MCNZ (herps). Rio Grande do Sul. Brazil.
MCN: Museu de Ciências Naturais, Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais (PUC-MG), Belo Horizonte. Obsolete as: PUCMG (herps). Current as: MCNAM (amphibians), MCNIP (fishes), MCNR (reptiles), MCL (fossils). See also: LGC. Minas Gerais. Brazil.
MCNA: Museo de Ciencias Naturales de Álava, Vitoria-Gasteiz. Current as: MCNA (fishes, herps, fossils). Álava. Spain.
MCNA: Museo de Ciencias Naturales y Antropológicas “Cornelio Moyano”, Mendoza. Current as: MCNA (fossils). Mendoza. Argentina.
MCNB: Museu de Ciències Naturals de Barcelona, Barcelona. Formerly: Museu de Zoologia (MZB) and Museu de Geologia (MGB), combined under new name (MCNB) in 2000. Includes: Museu Martorell [Municipal Museum of Barcelona (MMB)], built in 1878, currently houses geology and palaeontology collections. Obsolete as: MMB (fossils), MZB (herps), MZBA (birds), MZBE (amphibians). Current as: MCNB (fishes, herps). Also as: MGB (fossils), MGB MGC (fossils, Museu Martorell). Barcelona. Spain.
MCNC: Museo Provincial de Ciencias Naturales “Dr. Arturo Umberto Illía”, Córdoba. Current as: MCNC PV (fossils). Córdoba. Argentina.
MCNC: Museo de Ciencias Naturales, Los Caobos (Plaza Morelos), Caracas. Obsolete as: MCN (fossils). Current as: MCNC (fishes, herps, fossils). Districto Federal. Venezuela.
MCNCH: Museo de Ciencias naturales “Augusto Gustavo Schulz”, Resistencia. Note: reported as closed in 2016. Chaco. Argentina.
MCNG: Museo de Ciencias Naturales de UNELLEZ, Guanare. Also known as: Museo de Zoología. Current as: MCNG. Portuguesa. Venezuela.
MCNL: Museo de Ciencias Naturales “Gesué Pedro Noseda”, Lobería. Current as: MCNL (fossils). Buenos Aires. Argentina.
MCNLF: Museo de Ciencias Naturales “Florentino Ameghino”, Las Flores. Current as: MCNLF (fossils). Buenos Aires. Argentina.
MCNUS: Museo de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad de Salamanca, Salamanca. Includes: Sala de las Tortugas [Chelonian Room], founded in 1988. Current as: MCNUS (fossils). Also as: STUS (fossils). Salamanca. Spain.
MCP: Museu de Ciências e Tecnologia (MCT), Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre. Includes: fishes from Laboratório de Ciências do Mar, PUCRS (LACIMAR), transferred in the 1980s. Obsolete as: LACIMAR, MCPU, MCTP. Current as: MCP (fishes, herps), MCP-PV (fossils). Also as: MCTPUCRS (herps). Rio Grande do Sul. Brazil.
MCRE: Musei Civici di Reggio Emilia, Reggio Emilia. Current as: MCRE (fossils). Reggio Emilia. Italy.
MCS: Museo Regional de Cinco Saltos, Cinco Saltos. Current as: MCS (fossils). Río Negro. Argentina.
MCSBCN: Colegio La Salle de Bonanova, Museo de Ciencias Naturales, Barcelona. Current as: MCSBCN (fishes). Barcelona. Spain.
MCSN: Museo cantonale di storia naturale, Lugano. Current as: MCSN (fossils). Also as: MCSNL (fossils). Ticino. Switzerland.
MCSNB: Museo Civico di Scienze Naturali “Enrico Caffi”, Bergamo. Obsolete as: MCSN. Current as: MCSNB (fossils). Also as: MCSNBG (fossils). Bergamo. Italy.
MCSNBS: Museo Civico di Scienze Naturali, Brescia. Current as: MCSNBS (fossils). Brescia. Italy.
MCSNFE: Museo Civico di Storia Naturale, Ferrara. Includes: herpetological collection of Guido Campadelli (Collezione Campadelli) donated in 2005. Current as: MCSNFE (herps). Ferrara. Italy.
MCSNIO: Civico Museo Insubrico di Storia Naturale, Induno Olona. Current as: MCSNIO (fossils). Also as: CMISNIO (fossils). Varese. Italy.
MCSNP: Museo Civico di Storia Naturale, Piacenza. Also known as: Museo di Storia Naturale. Assigned here: MCSNP. Piacenza. Italy.
MCSNT: Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Trieste [Civic Museum of Natural History of Trieste], Trieste. Obsolete as: MCSN, MCST (insects), MSNT (fossils). Current as: MCSNT. Trieste. Italy.
MCSNV: Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Verona, Verona. Includes: Museo Zangheri della Romagna. Obsolete as: MCSN. Current as: MCSNV (fossils). Also as: MCVR (Lepidoptera), MSNV (Coleoptera), MSNVR (decapods). Verona. Italy.
MCUB: Colección de Referencia del Museo de Ciencias, Universidad El Bosque, Bogotá. Current as: MCUB-R-PE (fishes), MCUB-R-RE (herps). Distrito Capital. Colombia.
MCUC: Museu da Ciência da Universidade de Coimbra, Coimbra. Formerly: Museu de Zoologia (MZC). Obsolete as: MZC. Current as MCUC (fossils), MCUC/ZOO (zoology). Coimbra. Portugal.
MCV: Museo Naturalistico Archeologico, Musei Civici Vicenza, Vicenza. Current as: MCV (fossils). Vicenza. Italy.
MCZ: Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge. Includes: collections of the Boston Museum which had been given to the Boston Society of Natural History (BSNH) in 1893 and 1899; Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution fish collection (WHOI). Obsolete as: MCZH. Current as: MCZ (fishes, herps), MCZ-VP (fossils). Massachusetts. USA.
MCZL: Musée cantonal de zoologie, Lausanne. Current as: MCZL (fishes). Also as: MZL (birds). Vaud. Switzerland.
MCZR: Museo Civico di Zoologia, Roma [Rome]. Includes: herp collections donated by Massimo Capula between 1975–2009, Claudio Bagnoli in 2007 and Sergio Zerunian in 2007; herp collections acquired in 2007–2008 from Istituto di Zoologia “F. Raffaele”, Sapienza Università di Roma, and in 2009 from Laboratorio Centrale di Idrobiologia. Note: collection temporarily associated with Giardino Zoologico di Roma (MZGZ) from ca. 1932 to 1980s. Obsolete as: MZGZ. Current as: MCZR (fishes, herps). Also as: MCZRVR (reptiles). See also: MDBR (Dipartimento di Biologia Animale e dell'Uomo), MPUR (fossils). Roma [Rome]. Italy.
MD: Museo Municipal de Ciencias Naturales Carlos Darwin. Current as: MD (fossils). Buenos Aires. Argentina.
MD: Museu Regional do Dundo, Dundo, Chitato. Also known as: Museu do Dundo; Laboratório de Biologia do Museu do Dundo; Dundo Museum. Current as: MD. Lunda Norte. Angola.
MDBR: Museo di Anatomia Comparata “Battista Grassi”, Dipartimento di Biologia e Biotecnologie Charles Darwin (BBCD), Università degli Studi di Roma “La Sapienza” [Sapienza University of Rome], Roma [Rome]. Formerly: Dipartimento di Biologia Animale e dell'Uomo until 2010. Includes: Marco Bologna Collection (MBC). Current as: MDBR (herps). Also as: MACR (sharks). See also: MCZR (Museo Civico di Zoologia, Roma), MPUR (fossils). Roma [Rome]. Italy.
MDC: Missouri Department of Conservation, Columbia. Missouri. USA.
MDE: Le Musée des Dinosaures, Espéraza. Obsolete as: ME. Current as: MDE (fossils). Aude. France.
MDEIE: Museu Darder, Espai d'Interpretació de l'Estany, Banyoles. Current as: MDEIE (fishes, herps). Girona. Spain.
MDHC: Massimo Delfino Herpetological Collection, Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Torino [University of Turin], Torino [Turin]. Current as: MDHC (herps). See also: MRSN. Torino [Turin]. Italy.
MDLCA: Museo Sardo di Geologia e Paleontologia “Domenico Lovisato”, Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Geologiche (DSCG), Università di Cagliari, Cagliari, Sardinia. Formerly: Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra (DSTC), combined with other departments in 2012 to form DSCG. Obsolete as: DSTC (fossils). Current as: MDLCA (fossils). See also: IZUCS (fishes, herps). Cagliari. Italy.
MDM: Mesalands Dinosour Museum and Natural Sciences Laboratory, Tucumcari. New Mexico. USA.
MDM: Mifune Dinosaur Museum, Mifune. Current as: MDM (fossils). Kumamoto. Japan.
MDS: Museo de Dinosaurios de Salas de los Infantes, Burgos. Includes: collection of Club de Arqueología de Salas de los infantes (C.A.S.) donated in 2001. Obsolete as: PS (fossils, Paleontológico de Salas). Current as: MDS (fossils). Burgos. Spain.
MECN: Museo Ecuatoriano de Ciencias Naturales, Quito. Note: created as government organization in 1977; associated with Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad (INABIO), public research institute created in 2014. Current as: MECN (fishes, herps). Also as: MECN-DP (fishes), DHMECN (División de Herpetología, herps). Pichincha. Ecuador.
MEPAN: Muzeum Ewolucji, Polskiej Akademii Nauk [Museum of Evolution, Polish Academy of Sciences], Warszawa [Warsaw]. Note: public display part of both IZPAN and ZPAL; fluid-preserved fishes cited as MEPAN presumably at IZPAN. See also: IZPAN (fishes, herps), ZPAL (fossils). Mazovia. Poland.
MEPN: Museo de Historia Natural “Gustavo Orcés V.”, Instituto de Ciencias Biológicas, Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Quito. Note: collection originally included fossils from “Gabinete de Ciencias Naturales” de la Universidad Central, and those collected by Robert Hoffstetter from 1946–1952, but part of that material sent to European collections between 1950s and 1990s. Current as: EPN V (fossil vertebrates), MEPN (fishes, herps). Pichincha. Ecuador.
MER: Museo de Ciencias Naturales y Antropológicas “Prof. Antonio Serrano”, Paraná. Entre Ríos. Argentina.
MESH: Guangxi Maoershan National Nature Reserve collection, Guilin. Obsolete as: GXMESGXUA. Current as: MESH. Guangxi. China.
MESPC: Museum of M.E.S. Ponnani College [affiliated with Calicut University], Ponnani, Malappuram District. Note: museum cited as repository for fish type specimens but mistakenly associated with collection at Cochin University of Science and Technology (CUSAT); existence of fish collection at Ponnani College not confirmed. Assigned here: MESPC. Kerala. India.
METUGM: Orta Doğu Teknik Üniversitesi [Middle East Technical University], Geology Museum. Current as: METUGM (fossils). Ankara. Turkey.
MFA: Museo Provincial de Ciencias Naturales “Florentino Ameghino”, Santa Fe. Includes: fish collection from Instituto Nacional de Limnología (INALI), CONICET, Universidad Nacional del Litoral (UNL), Santo Tomé. Current as: MFA-ZV-I (fishes), MFA-ZV-H (herps). Santa Fe. Argentina.
MFB: Städtische Museen: Museum Natur und Mensch [Museum of Nature and Man], Freiburg im Breisgau. Formerly: Adelhausermuseum für Naturkunde und Völkerkunde (established in 1996), descended from Städtisches Museum für Naturkunde und Völkerkunde, founded in 1895. Note: naturkundlichen Sammlungen [natural history collection] housed at Zentralen Kunstdepot since 2012–2013. Baden-Württemberg. Germany.
MFCA: Museo Universitario “Florentino y Carlos Ameghino”, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Santa Fe. Formerly: Instituto de Fisiografía y Geología “Alfredo Castellanos”. Current as: MFCA (fossils). Santa Fe. Argentina.
MFCH: Museu de Fauna da Caatinga, Centro de Conservação e Manejo de Fauna da Caatinga (CEMAFAUNA-CAATINGA), Universidade Federal do Vale do São Francisco (UNIVASF), Petrolina. Current as: MFCH (herps). Pernambuco. Brazil.
MFGI: Magyar Földtani és Geofizikai Intézet [Hungarian Institute of Geology and Geophysics], Budapest. Note: established in 2012 via merger of Geological Institute of Hungary (GIH/MAFI) and Eötvös Loránd Geophysical Institute. Current as: MFGI (fossils). See also: ELTE, GIH. Hungary.
MFLB: Marine Fisheries Laboratory, Department of Fisheries, Bangkok. Formerly: Siam Department of Fisheries, Thailand Bureau of Fisheries. Current as: MFLB (fishes). Bangkok. Thailand.
MFM: Mizunami City Fossil Museum, Mizunami. Current as: MFM (fossils). Gifu. Japan.
MFP: Museo de Historia Natural Felipe Poey, Universidad de La Habana, La Habana [Havana]. Also known as: Museo Felipe Poey. Formerly: Museo de Historia Natural de la Real y Pontificia Universidad de La Habana established in 1842. Obsolete as: UHMP (fishes). Current as: MFP (fishes, herps). See also: DZUH (Departamento de Zoologia). La Habana. Cuba.
MFRU: Malawi Fisheries Research Unit, Ministry of Forestry, Fisheries and Environmental Affairs, Monkey Bay. Current as: MFRU. Also as: MFU. Malawi.
MFSN: Museo Friulano di Storia Naturale, Udine. Current as: MFSN (fossils). Udine. Italy.
MFV: Museo della Fauna, Dipartimento di Scienze veterinarie, Università di Messina, Messina. Note: Università di Messina formerly associated with Istituto di Idrobiologia in Ganzirri (IIG); institute apparently no longer exists and status of collections unknown. Current as: MFV-ME (mollusks). Messina. Italy.
MG: Museo Laurentii Theodori Gronovii, Lugdunum Batavorum [Leiden]. Also known as: Museum Gronovianum, Museo Lugdunensi Batavorum (MLB). Note: no longer extant; some fishes at NHMUK. South Holland. Netherlands.
MG: Museu Geológico de Lisboa, Lisboa [Lisbon]. Also known as: Museu do Instituto Geológico e Mineiro (IGM). Formerly: Museu dos Serviços Geológicos. Current as: MG (fossils). Also as: MIGM (fossils). Lisboa [Lisbon]. Portugal.
MGB: Vertebrate Palaeontology Collection, Geology Museum Bandung, Bandung. Current as: MGB (fossils). West Java. Indonesia.
MGCB: Museu de Ciències Naturals de Granollers [Granollers Museum of Natural Sciences], Col·lecció de Biodiversitat, Granollers. Current as: MGCB. Barcelona. Spain.
MGGC: Museo Geologico “Giovanni Capellini”, Università di Bologna, Bologna. Also known as: Museo di Geologia e Paleontologia (MB, MGPC); Capellini Museum. Note: founded 8 March 1860, dedicated to Giovanni Capellini in 1911; some artifacts and fossils transferred to Palazzo Poggi (PP) in 2000. Current as: MGGC (fossils). See also: MZUB (fishes, herps), PP (herps). Bologna. Italy.
MGH: Museum Godeffroy (1861–1885), Hamburg. Note: museum no longer extant; collections sold to various museums including Natural History Museum, London (NHMUK), Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde (SMNS), Zoologisches Museum, Universität Hamburg (ZMH) and Museum für Naturkunde (ZMB). Hamburg. Germany.
MGHSJ: Matuyama Girl's High School, Matuyama. Ehime. Japan.
MGL: Musée cantonal de géologie, Lausanne. Note: hosted by Université de Lausanne. Current as: MGL (fossils). Vaud. Switzerland.
MGM: Museo GeoMinero, Instituto Geológico y Minero de España (IGME), Madrid. Current as: MGM (fossils). Also as: MG-IGME, MG-VF. Madrid. Spain.
MGP: Museo di Geologia e Paleontologia, Centro di Ateneo per i Musei, Università degli Studi di Padova [University of Padua], Padova. Current as: MGP (fossils). Also as: MGP-PD (fossils). See also: MZP. Padova [Padua]. Italy.
MGR: Museo Geologico di Redagno, Bolzano [Bozen]. Current as: MGR (fossils). South Tyrol. Italy.
MGRI: Russian State Geological Prospecting University, Moscow. Formerly: Moscow Geological Prospecting Institute, descended from Moscow Mining Academy founded in 1918. Current as: MGRI (fossils). Northwestern Federal District. Russia.
MGUAN: Museu de Geologia da Universidade Agostinho Neto, Luanda. Current as: MGUAN (fossils), MGUAN-PA (fossils, PaleoAngola Collection). Luanda. Angola.
MGUS: Museo Geológico, Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla [Seville]. Current as: MGUS (fossils). Sevilla. Spain.
MH: Museo Humphrediano [Humphredianis]. Note: cited in Hermann (1804), perhaps in reference to private collection of Humphrey Waldo Sibthorp and/or his son John Sibthorp. France.
MHBU: Museum of Hebei University, Baoding. Current as: MHBU (spiders). Hebei. China.
MHD: Museo Histórico Departamental de Artigas, Artigas. Current as: MHD-P (fossils). Artigas. Uruguay.
MHD: Museo del Hombre Dominicano, Santo Domingo. Current as: MHD (fossils). Dominican Republic.
MHE: Museu de Minerais e Rochas “Heinz Ebert”, Departamento de Petrologia e Metalogenia (DPM), Instituto de Geociências e Ciências Exatas (IGCE), Universidade Estadual Paulista “Júlio de Mesquita Filho” (UNESP), Campus de Rio Claro. Note: Museu de Paleontologia e Estratigrafia “Prof. Dr. Paulo Milton Barbosa Landim” (URC) is separate museum in Departamento em Geologia Aplicada (DGA), IGCE. Obsolete as: MMR/UFU. Current as: MHE (fossils, DPM), URC (fossils, DGA). See also: CFBH (amphibians), LGP (fishes). São Paulo. Brazil.
MHH: Urweltmuseum Hauff [Hauff Museum], Holzmaden. Current as: MHH (fossils). Baden-Württemberg. Germany.
MHI: Muschelkalkmuseum Hagdorn Stadt Ingelfingen, Ingelfingen. Current as: MHI (fossils). Baden-Württemberg. Germany.
MHIN-UNSL: Museo de Historia Natural de la Universidad Nacional de San Luis, San Luis. Current as: MHIN-UNSL-GEO (fossils). Mendoza. Argentina.
MHM: Museo Histórico Municipal de Arroyito, Arroyito. Current as: MHM (fossils). Córdoba. Argentina.
MHN RUN: Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle de la Réunion, Saint-Denis, La Réunion. Obsolete as: URUN. Current as: MHN RUN (fishes). Also as: LEMUR (Laboratoire d'Écologie Marine, Université de La Réunion), MHNRUN (fishes). Réunion. France.
MHN-UCa: Museo de Historia Natural, Universidad de Caldas, Manizales. Obsolete as: MHNUC (herps). Current as: MHN-UCa (herps). Caldas. Colombia.
MHNAE: Museo de Historia Natural, Instituto Aguilar y Eslava, Cabra. Current as: MHNAE (fishes, herps). Córdoba. Spain.
MHNB: Muséum d'histoire naturelle de Bordeaux, Bordeaux. Current as: MHNB (fossils). Gironde. France.
MHNC: Museo de Historia Natural Alcide d'Orbigny, Cochabamba [Quchapampa]. Includes: fish collection assembled by Unidad de Limnología y Recursos Acuáticos, Universidad Mayor de San Simón (UMSS). Current as: MHNC, MHNCA (amphibians), MHNC-R (reptiles). Cochabamba. Bolivia.
MHNC: Museo de Historia Natural del Cusco, Universidad Nacional de San Antonio Abad de Cusco. Obsolete as: MHNCP, UNSAAC. Current as: MHNC (herps). Also as: GZ (herps, Gabinete de Zoología). Cusco. Peru.
MHNCI: Museu de História Natural do “Capão da Imbuia”, Curitiba. In error as: MHNCL, MNHCI. Current as: MHNCI (fishes, herps). Paraná. Brazil.
MHNCT: Museo de Historia Natural Carlos de la Torre y Huerta, Holguín. Current as: MHNCT. Also as: MHNH (herps). Holguín. Cuba.
MHNCUP: Museu de História Natural e da Ciência da Universidade do Porto, Porto. Formerly: Instituto de Zoologia which incorporated the museum, Estação de Biologia Marinha and general laboratory of Universidade do Porto under the directorship of Augusto Nobre in 1921; Museu de História Natural da Universidade do Porto (MHNFCP). Note: Universidade do Porto established in 1911, descended from Academia Politécnica do Porto established in 1837. Obsolete as: MHN, MUP, MZP, MHNFCP. Current as: MHNCUP/ICT (fishes), MHNCUP/AMP (amphibians), MHNCUP/REP (reptiles). Porto. Portugal.
MHNF: Museu de História Natural do Funchal, Departamento de Ciência da Câmara Municipal do Funchal, Funchal. Formerly: Museu Regional da Madeira (1929–1933), Museu Municipal (História Natural) do Funchal. Also as: MMF. Madeira. Portugal.
MHNF: Musée d'Histoire Naturelle de Fribourg, Université de Fribourg, Fribourg [Freiburg]. Current as: MHNF (fossils). Fribourg. Switzerland.
MHNG: Muséum d'histoire naturelle, Genève [Geneva]. Includes: part of private collection of Jacques Géry (GSC). Obsolete as: MNG. Current as: MHNG. Genève. Switzerland.
MHNH: Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle du Havre, Le Havre. Current as: MHNH (fossils). Also as: MHBR (fossils, Brun Collection). Seine-Maritime. France.
MHNIB: Museo de la Tierra Guaraní de Itaipu Binacional, Hernandarias. Current as: MHNIB (fishes). Also as: MAI (Museo Ambiental de Itaipú, herps). Alto Paraná. Paraguay.
MHNL: Musée des Confluences, Lyon. Formerly: Musée d'Histoire Naturelle de Lyon (MHNL), descended from Musée Guimet d'Histoire Naturelle de Lyon (MG, MGL or MGHNL). Obsolete as: LMHN, MG, MGHNL, MGL, MMC. Current as: MHNL. Lyon. France.
MHNLR: Muséum d'Histoire naturelle de La Rochelle, La Rochelle. Includes: fish types from IFREMER. Current as: MHNLR (fishes). Also as: MHNR (herps). Charente-Maritime. France.
MHNLS: Museo de Historia Natural La Salle, Fundación La Salle de Ciencias Naturales, Caracas. Formerly: Museo de Ciencias Naturales. Note: established in 1940 as part of Sociedad de Ciencias Naturales La Salle (SCNLS) in Colegio La Salle de Tienda Honda, Caracas. Obsolete as: SCN, MNHLS. Current as: MHNLS (fishes, herps). See also: CRI-EDHIG (Campus Guayana). Districto Federal. Venezuela.
MHNM: Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, Montevideo. Formerly: Museo de Historia Natural de Montevideo. Includes: herp collection transferred from Centro de Estudios de Ciencias Naturale (CECN) ca. 1996; fishes from Dirección Nacional de Recursos Acuáticos (DINARA, formerly Instituto Nacional de Pesca, INAPE). Note: temporarily merged with Museo Nacional de Antropología (MNA) in 2001 to form Museo Nacional de Historia Natural y Antropología (MUHINA, MUNHINA); MHNM and MNA re-established as independent museums in 2009. Obsolete as: MNHN, MNHMU, MNHNM, MNHNU, MUHINA, MUNHINA. Current as: MHNM (fishes, herps). Montevideo. Uruguay.
MHNM: Musée d'histoire naturelle, Parc national de Miguasha. Current as: MHNM (fossils). Quebec. Canada.
MHNM: Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle de Marrakech, Marrakesh. Current as: MHNM (fossils). Marrakesh-Safi. Morocco.
MHNN: Museum d'Histoire Naturelle de Neuchâtel, Neuchâtel. Note: includes Musée Zoologique de Neuchâtel (MZN). Current as: MHNN (herps). Also as: MHNNL (birds), MZN (herps). Neuchâtel. Switzerland.
MHNN: Museum d'Histoire Naturelle de la ville de Nice, Nice. Also as: MHNNice. Alpes-Maritimes. France.
MHNNT: Museum d'Histoire Naturelle de Nantes, Nantes. Loire-Atlantique. France.
MHNP: Museu de História Natural, Pirassununga. Note: private museum and collection of Manuel Pereira de Godoy currently administered by Godoy family (no public access); includes some Godoy fishes formerly deposited at Estação Experimental de Biologia e Piscicultura de Pirassununga (EEBP) and potentially Assessoria para Meio Ambiente, ELETROSUL, Florianópolis (AMA). See also: AMA, EEBP, LIRP (Godoy fishes). São Paulo. Brazil.
MHNSR: Museo Municipal de Historia Natural de San Rafael, San Rafael. Obsolete as: MNHSR (herps). Current as: MHNSR, MHNSR-PV (fossils, Sección Paleontología de Vertebrados). Also as: MHN, MMHN-SR, MHNSRMza. Mendoza. Argentina.
MHNT: Museu de História Natural de Taubaté, Taubaté. Current as: MHNT (fossils). See also: TAU. São Paulo. Brazil.
MHNT: Muséum d'histoire naturelle de la ville de Toulouse. Also known as: Musée de Toulouse (MT). Current as: MHNT (fossils). Also as: MT. Haute-Garonne. France.
MHNUC: Museo de Historia Natural de la Universidad de Cauca, Popayán. Obsolete as: UCP. Current as: MHNUC (fishes), MHNUC-Cr (Crocodylia), MHNUC-Te (Testudinata), MHNUC-Sa (Sauria), MHNUC-Se (Serpentes). Cauca. Colombia.
MHNUSC: Museo de Historia Natural da Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela. Also known as: Museum Luis Iglesias de Ciencias Naturais. Current as: MHNUSC (fishes). A Coruña. Spain.
MHNV: Museo de Historia Natural de Valparaíso, Valparaíso. Note: original museum founded by Eduardo de la Barra in 1878 and largely destroyed by earthquake and fire in 1906; remains of collection moved to Santiago and returned to Valparaíso in 1912. Current as: MHNV. Valparaíso. Chile.
MHRA: Museo Histórico Regional Ayacucho, Ayacucho. Current as: MHRA (fossils). Buenos Aires. Argentina.
MHUA: Museo de Herpetología de la Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín. Note: established in 1998 and administered by Grupo Herpetológico de Antioquia (GHA). Current as: MHUA-A (amphibians), MHUA-R (reptiles), MHUA-L (larvae). See also: CIUA (fishes), MUA (fishes). Antioquia. Colombia.
MHUL: Museo Herpetológico de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Nicaragua-León, León. Current as: MHUL (herps). Nicaragua.
MHV: Musée National de Burkina Faso, Mnistère de la Culture, des Arts et du Tourisme, Ouagadougou. Formerly: Musée de Haute Volta [Upper Volta]. Burkina Faso.
MIKU: Misaki Marine Biological Institute, Misaki-Koen. Note: founded in 1958, closed ca. 1970; collection included fishes from 1958 Amami (Kagoshima) Expedition by K. Matsubara; most specimens lost, some transferred to Kyoto University Museum and Maizuru Fisheries Research Station (FAKU). Collection distinct from Misaki Marine Biological Station of the University of Tokyo. See also: FAKU. Osaka. Japan.
MIMB: Museum of A.V. Zhirmunsky Institute of Marine Biology, Far East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok. Current as: MIMB (fishes, herps). Primorsky Krai. Russia.
MINB: Muzeul Natxional de Istorie Naturală “Grigore Antipa”, Bucureşti [Bucharest]. Obsolete as: MHNGA, MIN G (herps), NHMB. Current as: MINB (fishes). Also as: GAMNH (birds), MGAB. Bucureşti [Bucharest]. Romania.
MIWG: Dinosaur Isle Museum, Sandown. Formerly: Museum of Isle of Wight Geology (MIWG). Current as: MIWG (fossils) or IWCMS (fossils from 1994 onwards, Isle of Wight County Museums Service). England. United Kingdom.
MIZA: Museo del Instituto de Zoología Agrícola Francisco Fernández Yépez, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Maracay Campus, Maracay. Obsolete as: UCV. Current as: MIZA (herps). See also: MBUCV. Aragua. Venezuela.
MJACM: Museo de la Junta de Acción Comunal de la vereda Monquirá, Villa de Leyva. Current as: MJACM (fossils). Boyacá. Colombia.
MJML: Museum of Jurassic Marine Life, Ashfield, Kimmeridge, Dorset. England. United Kingdom.
MJSN: Jurassica Museum, Porrentruy. Formerly: Musée jurassien des sciences naturelles. Current as: MJSN (fossils). Jura. Switzerland.
MJU: Museo Jenensis Universitatis, Jena. Note: no longer extant. Thüringen [Thuringia]. Germany.
MKC: Private collection of J.D. Marcus Knight, Chennai. Note: to be deposited at Zoological Survey of India, Southern Regional Centre (ZSI-SRC). Current as: MKC (fishes). Tamil Nadu. India.
MKQ: Private collection of Mahdi Kazemi, Qom. Qom. Iran.
ML: Museu da Lourinhã, Lourinhã. Note: founded 24 June 1984; managed by non-profit, non-governmental organization Grupo de Etnologia e Arqueologia da Lourinhã (GEAL). Current as: ML (fossils). Lisboa [Lisbon]. Portugal.
MLH: Museum Lampianum, Hanover [Hannover]. Note: no longer extant. Niedersachsen [Lower Saxony]. Germany.
MLML: Moss Landing Marine Laboratories, Moss Landing. California. USA.
MLP: Museo de La Plata, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo (FCNyM), Universidad Nacional de La Plata, La Plata. Also known as: Museo de Ciencias Naturales de La Plata (CHMLPA). Formerly: Museo Antropológico y Arqueológico de Buenos Aires based on collections donated by Francisco Pascasio Moreno. Note: fish collection in same building but separate from Asociación Ictiológica (AI) collection. In error as: ILPLA (herps). Obsolete as: CHMLPA, MLPA. Current as: MLP (fishes), MLP (fossils, División Paleontología de Vertebrados), MLP A (amphibians), MLP R (reptiles, for catalog numbers ≥5000), MLP S. & MLP JW. (lizards & snakes, respectively, for catalog numbers <5000), MLP DB (Diego Baldo herpetological collection). Also as: UNLP (amphibians). Buenos Aires. Argentina.
MLS: Museo de Historia Natural de La Salle, Bogotá. Note: original collection destroyed by fire 9–10 Apr 1948. Obsolete as: ILS (Instituto de La Salle). Current as: MLS (fishes, herps). Distrito Capital. Colombia.
MLUH: Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, Zentralmagazin Naturwissenschaftlicher Sammlungen (ZNS), Halle (Saale). Formerly: Institut für Zoologie, Halle (IZH); Geiseltal Museum (GM). Note: Founded in 1769 as natural history cabinet by J.F.G. Goldhagen; MLU created in 1817 via merger of Universität Wittenberg and Universität Halle; collections of Geiseltal Museum relocated to ZNS in 2009. Obsolete as: GM, MLU, ZIH, ZMUH, ZNS. Current as: MLUH (fishes, herps, fossils), MLUH (IZH-P), MLUH (IZH-A), MLUH (IZH-R) (historical specimens of fishes, amphibians & reptiles, respectively), MLUH (GMH) (Geiseltal fossils, Eocene), MLUH (Ifg) (other fossils, Geology Department). Sachsen-Anhalt [Saxony-Anhalt]. Germany.
MLZ: Occidental College, Moore Laboratory of Zoology, Los Angeles. Also as: OC. California. USA.
MM: Manchester Museum, University of Manchester, Manchester. Current as: MM (fossils). Also as: MANCH (fossils). England. United Kingdom.
MM: The Manitoba Museum, Winnipeg. Formerly: Manitoba Museum of Man and Nature. Obsolete as: MMMN. Current as: MM (fishes, herps). Also as: TMM (online database). Manitoba. Canada.
MMA: Naturkundemuseum Mauritianum Altenburg. Current as: MMA (fossils). Thüringen [Thuringia]. Germany.
MMB: Musée de la Mer, Biarritz. Also known as: Biarritz Aquarium. Pyrénées-Atlantiques. France.
MMB: National Museum of Malí, Bamako. Also known as: Musée national du Mali. Current as: MMB (fossils). Mali.
MMBI: Murmansk Marine Biological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Dal'nie [Dalnie] Zelentsy settlement. Note: founded in 1935. Current as: MMBI (fishes). Murmansk Oblast. Russia.
MMBR: Musée de la Marine, Brest. Finistère. France.
MMC: Museo Municipal de Colonia “Dr. Bautista Rebuffo”, Colonia del Sacramento. Current as: MMC (fossils). Colonia. Uruguay.
MMC: Museu de les Mines de Cercs [Cercs Mine Museum], Sant Corneli. Current as: MMC (fossils). Barcelona. Spain.
MMCNP: Museo Municipal de Ciencias Naturales Pachamama, Santa Clara del Mar. Current as: MMCNP (fossils). Buenos Aires. Argentina.
MMG: Senckenberg Naturhistorische Sammlungen (SNSD), Museum für Mineralogie und Geologie, Dresden. Formerly: Königliches Naturalienkabinett; Dresdener Hof-Mineralien-Cabinet. Includes: collection of Gustav Freiherr von Stockheim including fossils formerly known as Ortenburger Kreide. Current as: MMG (fossils). Also as: SNSD-MMG (fossils). See also: MTD. Sachsen [Saxony]. Germany.
MMH: Museo de Ciencias Naturales “Vicente Di Martino”, Monte Hermoso. Current as: MMH-QEQ (fossils from Puente Vanoli). Buenos Aires. Argentina.
MMK: McGregor Museum, Kimberley, Cape Province. Also known as: Alexander McGregor Memorial Museum. Obsolete as: K.M. and MM (herps). Current as: MMK (herps). Northern Cape. South Africa.
MMK: Museo de la Misión de Kavanayen, Kavanayen. Bolívar. Venezuela.
MML: Paleontología de Vertebrados, Museo Municipal de Lamarque, Lamarque. Also known as: Museo Paleontológico de Lamarque. Current as: MML-PV (fossils). Río Negro. Argentina.
MMM: Museo Marino de Margarita, Boca del Río, Isla Margarita. Note: founded in 1994. Current as: MMM-CI (fishes, colección ictiológica), MMM-CI-E (fishes, colección de exhibición). Nueva Esparta. Venezuela.
MMMC: Marine Biodiversity Museum of Mandapam Regional Centre, Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute (CMFRI), Mandapam, Ramanathapuram District. Formerly: Museum of the Regional Centre of Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Mandapam Camp. Note: established in 1947; CMFRI headquarters shifted from Mandapam to Kochi [Cochin] with second museum established in Kochi. Current as: MMMC. Also as: CMFRI F (fishes), FMRI (fishes). See also: CMFRI (Kochi [Cochin], Kerala). Tamil Nadu. India.
MMNH: Muséum d'histoire naturelle de Marseille, Marseille. Current as: MMNH (herps). Also as: MHNM (fossils), MHNMF (herps). Bouches-du-Rhône. France.
MMNHN: Nanjing Museum, Chinese Academy of Sciences [Academia Sinica], Nanjing. Formerly: Metropolitan Museum of Natural History. Jiangsu. China.
MMNHS: Macedonian Museum of Natural History, Skopje. Also as: MHNNS. Macedonia.
MMNP: Museo Municipal de Nueva Palmira “Francisco Lucas Roselli”, Nueva Palmira. Current as: MMNP (fossils). Colonia. Uruguay.
MMNS: Mississippi Museum of Natural Science, Jackson. Formerly: Fannye A. Cook Memorial Museum. Note: some Cook fish specimens at FMNH, USNM, AMNH. Current as: MMNS (fishes, herps). Mississippi. USA.
MMO: Monestir de Montserrat, Monistrol de Montserrat. Also known as: Santa Maria de Montserrat Abbey. Current as: MMO (herps). Catalonia. Spain.
MMP: Museo Municipal de Ciencias Naturales “Lorenzo Scaglia”, Mar del Plata. Current as: MMP (fossils). Buenos Aires. Argentina.
MMS: Musée du Moulin Seigneurial, Velaux. Current as: MMS (fossils). Bouches-du-Rhône. France.
MMTT: Muzeye Melli-e Tarikh-e Tabiei, Tehran. Also known as: Muzeh-e Melli-ye Tarikh-e Tabi'i [National Museum of Natural History]. Note: founded in 1973; now part of Iran Department of the Environment. Current as: MMTT. Tehran. Iran.
MMUDO: Museo del Mar [Museo Marino de Cumaná], Universidad de Oriente, Cumaná. Obsolete as: UDO, UOIO. Current as: MMUDO. Sucre. Venezuela.
MMUL: Muzeum města Ústí nad Labem [Municipal Museum of Ústí nad Labem], Ústí nad Labem [Aussig]. Current as: MMUL. Ústí nad Labem [Ústecký]. Czech Republic.
MNA: Museum of Northern Arizona, Flagstaff. Current as: MNA (fossils). Arizona. USA.
MNBH: Musée National Boubou-Hama, Niamey. Also known as: Musée National du Niger, National Museum of Niger. Obsolete as: MNN (fossils). Current as: MNBH (fossils). Niger.
MNCN: Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Madrid. Note: founded in 1771 as Gabinete Real de Historia Natural [Royal Cabinet of Natural History] by King Carlos III with the acquisition of Pedro Franco Dávila's cabinet. Includes: Unidad de Zoología Aplicada (UZA) herp collection. Current as: MNCN (fishes, herps), MNCN-PV (fossils). Also as: MNÇN. Madrid. Spain.
MNCR: Museo Nacional de Costa Rica, San José. San José. Costa Rica.
MNCS: Department of Marine Biology and Fisheries, Mai-Nefhi College of Science, Eritrea Institute of Technology (EIT). Note: small collection of marine fishes lacking catalog numbers and staff. Assigned here: MNCS. Eritrea.
MNG: Museum der Natur Gotha, Gotha. Current as: MNG (fossils). Thüringen [Thuringia]. Germany.
MNHC: Massachusetts Natural History Collections, University of Massachusetts, Amherst. Includes: collection transferred from Massachusetts Board of Agriculture, Boston, in 1866. Obsolete as: UMA. Current as: MNHC. Massachusetts. USA.
MNHM: Museo di Storia Naturale della Maremma [Maremma Natural History Museum], Grosseto. Current as: MNHM. Grosseto. Italy.
MNHN: Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris. Includes: herp collection of M. Alexandre Westphal-Castelnau formerly at L'École nationale supérieure agronomique de Montpellier (ENSAM); collections from Laboratoire des Sciences Naturelles, Université-Indochinoise, Hanoi (LSNUI) and Office de la Recherche scientifique et Technique d'Outre-mer (ORSTOM). Obsolete as: MHNP. Current as: MNHN (fishes, herps), MNHN TGE (fossils, ensemble divisions from Morocco, Algeria and Mali), MNHN.F (fossils). Also as: MNHNP (amphibians, fossils), MNHN-ZA (osteological specimens of fishes, amphibians, reptiles). Paris. France.
MNHNC: Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, Santiago. Includes: fish collections from the Universidad de Chile, Santiago, including Departamento de Biología Celular y Genética (DBCG, DBCUCH, DBGUCH), Facultad de Ciencias Forestales (FFSUC) and Laboratorio de Biología (LBUCH). Current as: MNHNC (fishes, herps), SGO-PV (fossils, Colección de Paleontología de Vertebrados, Área de Paleontología). Also as: MNHNCL, MNHNCH, MNHN-Stg. Santiago. Chile.
MNHNCu: Museo Nacional de Historia Natural de Cuba, La Habana [Havana]. Formerly: Museo de Ciencias Felipe Poey (1962–1980), preceded by Museo Cubano de Ciencias Naturales (1959–1961). Includes: herps from Ansel Fong G. (AFG). Current as: MNHNCu (herps, fossils). La Habana. Cuba.
MNHNL: Museu Nacional de História Natural de Angola, Largo do Kinaxixe, Luanda [ex São Paulo da Assunção de Loanda]. Note: descended from Angolan Museum founded in 1938 in São Miguel Fort, Luanda Bay area. Current as: MNHNL/ANF (amphibians), MNHNL/Rep (reptiles). Luanda. Angola.
MNHNL: Nationalmusée fir Naturgeschicht [Musée national d'histoire naturelle, National Museum of Natural History], Luxembourg. Obsolete as: MHNL, MNHNLU. Current as: MNHNL (fossils). Luxembourg.
MNHNM: Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, Chapultepec, Mexico City. Also known as: Museo de Historia Natural de la Ciudad de México; currently Museo de Historia Natural y Cultura Ambiental. Note: various collections transferred to CNPE-IBUNAM (fishes) and CNAR (herps). Mexico City. Mexico.
MNHNP: Museo Nacional de Historia Natural del Paraguay, San Lorenzo [near Asunción]. Obsolete as: MHNP. Current as: MNHNP (fishes, herps). Central. Paraguay.
MNHNSD: Museo Nacional de Historia Natural Professor Eugenio de Jesús Marcano, Santo Domingo. Current as: MNHNSD (fishes, herps). Dominican Republic.
MNHUW: Muzeum Przyrodnicze Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego [Museum of Natural History, University of Wroclaw], Wrocław [Breslau]. Also known as: Władysław Rydzewski Museum of Natural History. Formerly: Zoologisches Museum der Universität Breslau [Zoological Museum Breslau]. Includes: collections of Johann Ludwig Christian Gravenhorst (1777–1857), although at least half destroyed during WWII. Current as: MNHUW (herps). Also as: MNHW, MPUW (birds), NMHW (fishes), UWZM (herps). See also: HTW (fossils). Mazovia. Poland.
MNHV: Museum of Natural History, Varna. Bulgaria.
MNK: Museo de Historia Natural Noel Kempff Mercado, Universidad Autónoma Gabriel René Moreno, Santa Cruz de La Sierra. Obsolete as: MNKM, NK, NKA. Current as: MNKP (fishes), MNKR (reptiles), MNKA (amphibians). Santa Cruz. Bolivia.
MNKhU: Museum of Nature at V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University [Karazin University], Kharkiv [Kharkov]. Includes: Zoological Cabinet of Imperial Kharkiv University (ZCIKU). Obsolete as: KSU (Kharkov State University), MNKhNU, MPKhU, ZCIKU, ZDKU. Current as: MNKhU. Also as: MNKNU (herps). Kharkiv. Ukraine.
MNPA: Museo Nacional Paleontológico-Arqueológico, Tarija [San Bernardo de la Frontera de Tarixa]. Formerly: Museo Universitario de Tarija (MUT). Current as: MNPA-V (fossil vertebrates). Tarija. Bolivia.
MNRJ: Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro. Includes: Adolpho Lutz Herpetological Collection (AL-MN, maintained separately), and Carlos Alberto Gonçalves da Cruz private collection (CAGC) assembled at Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ). Note: collection separate and distinct from Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ/ZUFRJ); entomological, arachnid, mollusk and fossil collections stored at São Cristóvão Palace in Quinta da Boa Vista, Museu Nacional's main building, were largely destroyed by fire on 2 Sep 2018. Current as: MNRJ (fishes, herps), MNTI (fish tissue collection), MNLM (vertebrate DNA extract collection), MN (fossils). Also as: DGP (fossils, Departamento de Geologia e Paleontologia), MNUFRJ (fossils). Rio de Janeiro. Brazil.
MNRT: Ministry of Natural Resources, Toronto. Ontario. Canada.
MNST: Natural Scieaacnces Museum of Albania, Tirana. Note: affiliated with the University of Tirana. Current as: MNST (herps). Albania.
MNSTM: Museum of Natural Sciences, Târgu Mureş. Current as: MNSTM (fossil sharks). Mureş. Romania.
MNUL: Museum für Natur und Umwelt, Lübecker Museen, Lübeck. Also known as: Museum Lübeck, Naturhistorisches Museum zu Lübeck. Note: original museum destroyed 28 Mar 1942 during WWII; reopened in 1963 as Naturhistorisches Museum—Museum für Natur und Naturgeschichte in Schleswig-Holstein. Also as: LNHM (herps). Schleswig-Holstein. Germany.
MO: Le Musée de l'île d'Oléron, Saint-Pierre-d'Oléron. Current as: MO (fossils). Charente-Maritime. France.
MOBR: Museo Oceanológico Hermano Benigno Román, Estación de Investigaciones Marinas de Margarita (EDIMAR or EIMM), Fundación La Salle de Ciencias Naturales, Isla de Margarita. Obsolete as: FLSM, EIMM, MOBR-EDIMAR. Current as: MOBR. Nueva Esparta. Venezuela.
MOM: Musée Oceanographique de Monaco. Current as: MOM (fishes). Monaco.
MOM: Top Mandala [Old Museum Building], National Museums of Malawi, Blantyre. Formerly: Nyasaland Museum. Note: Museums of Malawi consists of five facilities, Top Mandala, Chichiri Museum, Lake Malawi Museum, Regional Mzuzu Museum and Gallery and Mtengatenga Postal Hut Museum; Top Mandala Museum serves as storage for collections and administrative headquarters for federal Department of Museums and Monuments. Current as: MOM, MOM-Hepe (herps). Also as: MMCM (entomology). Malawi.
MOR: Mark-Oliver Rödel herpetological collection at Julius-Maximilians-Universität (JMU) [University of Würzburg], Würzburg. Current as: MOR (herps). See also: PIW (fossils). Bayern [Bavaria]. Germany.
MOR: Museum of the Rockies, Bozeman. Note: affiliated with Montana State University. Current as: MOR (fossils). See also: MSUB (Biology Department). Montana. USA.
MOSU: Morehead State University, Morehead. Current as: MOSU. Kentucky. USA.
MOVI: Museu Oceanográfico Univali, Universidade do Vale do Itajaí, Balneário Piçarras. Also known as: Museu Oceanográfico do Vale do Itajaí. Includes: private collection of Jules M.R. Soto (JMRS) and Museu de Ciências Naturais (MCNC), Centro de Estudos Bio-Ecológicos Costeiros, Limnológicos e Marinhos (CEBECLIM) in Porto Alegre, annexed by Universidade do Vale do Itajaí in 1993. Current as: MOVI (fishes, herps). Santa Catarina. Brazil.
MOZ: Museo Provincial de Ciencias Naturales “Prof. Dr. Juan A. Olsacher”, Zapala. Current as: MOZ (fossils). Also as: MOZP. Neuquén. Argentina.
MPAB: Museo Paleontológico “Alejandro Berro”, Mercedes. Current as: MPAB (fossils). Soriano. Uruguay.
MPAC: Museo Paleontológico “Armando Calcaterra”, Colonia del Sacramento. Current as: MPAC (fossils). Colonia. Uruguay.
MPBAR: Museo Paleontológico de la Asociación Paleontológica Bariloche, San Carlos de Bariloche. Current as: MPBAR (fossils). Río Negro. Argentina.
MPC: Mongolian Paleontological Center, Institute of Paleontology and Geology, Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Ulaanbaatar [Ulan Bator]. Current as: MPC (fossils). Also as: GI DPS (fossils), IGM or MGI (Geological Institute), MPS. Mongolia.
MPC: Museo Paleontológico de Caldera, Caldera. Current as: MPC (fossils). Copiapó. Chile.
MPCA: Museo provincial de Cipolletti “Carlos Ameghino”, Cipolletti. Current as: MPCA-PV (fossils). Río Negro. Argentina.
MPCM: Museo Paleontologico Cittadino di Monfalcone, Monfalcone. Current as: MPCM (fossils). Gorizia. Italy.
MPCN: Museo Patagónico de Ciencias Naturales “Juan Carlos Salgado”, General Roca. Current as: MPCN (fossils). Río Negro. Argentina.
MPDM: Musée Parc des Dinosaures, Mèze. Current as: MPDM (fossils). Hérault. France.
MPEF: Museo Paleontológico “Egidio Feruglio”, Trelew. Current as: MPEF-PV (fossil vertebrates). Chubut. Argentina.
MPEG: Museu Paraense “Emilio Goeldi”, Belém. Note: federal research institution within the Brazilian Ministry of Science, Technology and Communication (MCTIC). Current as: MPEG (fishes, herps), MPEG-V (fossils). Pará. Brazil.
MPH: Museo Municipal Punta Hermengo, Miramar. Current as: MPH (fossils). Córdoba. Argentina.
MPM: Mie Prefectural Museum, Tsu. Note: original Mie Prefectural Museum opened in 1953 and closed in 2014; current museum opened on new site in 2014. Current as: MPM (fishes). Also as: MPMQ. Mie. Japan.
MPM: Milwaukee Public Museum, Vertebrate Zoology, Milwaukee. Current as: MPM. Wisconsin. USA.
MPM: Museo Regional Provincial “Padre Jesus Molina”, Río Gallegos. Note: museum established in 1957, adopted current name in 1983. Current as: MPM (fossils). Santa Cruz. Argentina.
MPMA: Museu de Paleontologia “Prof. Antonio Celso de Arruda Campos”, Monte Alto. Also known as: Museu de Paleontologia de Monte Alto. Current as: MPMA (fossils). São Paulo. Brazil.
MPP: Museo Paleontologico Parmense, Parma. Note: originated as sezione paleontologica del Gabinetto di Storia Naturale dell'Università di Parma. Current as: MPP (fossils). Parma. Italy.
MPSC: Museu de Paleontologia Plácido Cidade Nuvens, Santana do Cariri. Current as: MPSC (fossils). Ceará. Brazil.
MPT: Muzeum Przyrody i Techniki [Museum of Nature and Technology (MNtS)], Starachowice. Formerly: Museum of History of Material Culture (MHkM). Current as: MPT.P (fossils). Śwį etokrzyskie. Poland.
MPUJ: Museo Javeriano de Historia Natural “Lorenzo Uribe, S.J.”, Pontifica Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá. Current as: MPUJ (fishes). Also as: MUJ (herps). Distrito Capital. Colombia.
MPUM: Museo Paleontologia, Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra “A. Desio”, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milano [Milan]. Current as: MPUM (fossils). Milano [Milan]. Italy.
MPUR: Museo Paleontologia Università Roma, Università degli Studi di Roma “La Sapienza” [Sapienza University of Rome], Roma [Rome]. Note: currently part of Museo Universitario di Scienze della Terra (MUST). Current as: MPUR (fossils). See also: MCZR (fishes, herps), MDBR (Dipartimento di Biologia Animale e dell'Uomo). Roma [Rome]. Italy.
MPV: Museo de Ciencias Naturales, València. Formerly: Museo Paleontológico Municipal de València. Current as: MPV (fossils). Valencia. Spain.
MPZ: Museo de Paleontología de Zaragoza, Zaragoza. Also known as: Museo Paleontológico de la Universidad de Zaragoza. Includes: fossils on loan from Diputación General de Aragón [Directorate General of Cultural Heritage of the Government of Aragon (GAL)]. Note: established in 1984–1985 in association with the Departamento de Paleontología, Universidad de Zaragoza (DPZ); MPZ now part of Museo de Ciencias Naturales de la Universidad de Zaragoza (MCNUZ) founded in 2013. Current as: MPZ (fossils). Zaragoza. Spain.
MQU: Macquarie University, Department of Biological Sciences, North Ryde. New South Wales. Australia.
MRA: Museo Regional de Atacama, Copiapó. Current as: MRA (herps). Copiapó. Chile.
MRC: Museo de Historia Natural de Concepción, Concepción. Current as: MRC (herps). Concepción. Chile.
MRSN: Museo Regionale di Scienze Naturali di Torino, Torino [Turin]. Includes: historical collections owned by Università degli Studi di Torino [University of Turin], but housed and managed by MRSN, specifically Museo di Zoologia (MZUT), Museo di Anatomia Comparata (MACUT) and Museo di Geologia e Paleontologia (MGPT-PU); recent collections assembled after MRSN established in 1978. Obsolete as: IMZUT, MRSNT, MSNT, MSNTO, MUZT, PU. Current as: MRSN (modern collections), MACUT & MZUT (Università di Torino historical collections), MGPT-PU (fossils). See also: MDHC. Torino [Turin]. Italy.
MRST: Museo Regionale di Palazzo d'Aumale, Collezione Naturalistica, Terrasini. Also known as: Museo Regionale di Storia Naturale di Terrasini. Current as: MRST. Palermo. Italy.
MS: Musée du Savignéen, Savigné-sur-Lathan. Note: fossil specimens cited as year of registration (last three digits or all four), two-letter code for site and specimen number (e.g., 007-PM-295, 2012.VG.1). Current as: MS (general fossils), GM (fossils from La Guimardière), PM (fossils from Pelmer), VG (fossils from Vigneaux). Indre-et-Loire. France.
MSB: Museum of Southwestern Biology, Department of Biology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque. Includes: fishes from US Geological Survey (USGS), Fort Collins (historically cited as BS/FC and now recataloged with MSB numbers). Obsolete as: UNM (but still in use for herp specimen tags). Current as: MSB (fishes, herps). New Mexico. USA.
MSC: McWane Science Center, Birmingham. Includes: Red Mountain Museum (RMM) collections. Current as: MSC (fossils). Alabama. USA.
MSCB: Museu Geològic del Seminari Conciliar de Barcelona, Barcelona. Also known as: Museu Geològic del Seminari de Barcelona [Museo Geológico del Seminario de Barcelona (MGSB)]. Obsolete as: MGSB (fossils). Current as: MSCB (fossils). Barcelona. Spain.
MSF: Museo Civico di Scienze Naturali, Faenza. Also known as: Malmerendi Museum of Natural Science. Current as: MSF (fossils). Ravenna. Italy.
MSFM: Matsumoto Shiga Fossil Museum, Matsumoto. Current as: MSFM (fossils). Nagano. Japan.
MSGU: Samarkandskij gosudarstvennyj universitet [Samarkand State University], Museum of Department of Zoology, Samarkand. Current as: MSGU (herps). Uzbekistan.
MSK: Private collection of Muhammed Sharif Khan, Chenab Nagar [Rabwah]. Punjab. Pakistan.
MSLKHC: Simon F.S. Li Marine Science Laboratory, Department of Biology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK), Sha Tin [Shatin]. Formerly: Marine Science Laboratory (MSL, 1970–2002). Obsolete as: MSL, MSLH. Current as: MSLKHC. Also as: CUHK. Hong Kong. China.
MSM: Marine Science Museum, Tokai University, Shimizu. Current as: MSM. Also as: MSMTU (crustaceans). See also: IORD, TMFE. Shizuoka. Japan.
MSND: Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Domodossola, Domodossola. Also known as: Museo di Storia Naturale “G.G. Galletti” di Domodossola. Note: founded in 1875. Current as: MSND (herps). Verbano-Cusio-Ossola. Italy.
MSNG: Museo Civico di Storia Naturale “Giacomo Doria” [Civic Museum of Natural History], Genova [Genoa]. Includes: Collection of Marquis Giacomo Doria (MSNGD). Obsolete as: MCG, MCSNG. Current as: MSNG (fishes, herps). Also as: MCSN (insects). Genova [Genoa]. Italy.
MSNL: Museo di storia naturale del Mediterraneo, Livorno. Current as: MSNL (sharks). Livorno. Italy.
MSNM: Museo Civico di Storia Naturale, Milano [Milan]. Note: partially destroyed in August 1943 during World War II. Includes: extant collection assembled by Giorgio Jan (1791–1866). Obsolete as: MCSN. Current as: MSNM. Also as: BES (fossils). Milano [Milan]. Italy.
MSNPN: Muzeul de Sxtiintxe Naturale Piatra-Neamtx, Piatra Neamtx. Current as: MSNPN (fossils). Neamtx. Romania.
MSNPV: Museo di Storia Naturale, Università di Pavia, Pavia. Also known as: Museo di Pavia, Lombardy (MPI). Obsolete as: MCNPV, MZUP. Current as: MSNPV (fishes, herps, fossils). Pavia. Italy.
MSNUP: Museo di Storia Naturale dell'Università di Pisa [Natural History Museum of the University of Pisa], Calci. Also known as: Museo di Storia Naturale e del Territorio di Calci (MSNT), Museo di Storia Naturale di Pisa (MSNP). Obsolete as: MSNT, PUM. Current as: MSNUP (fossils). Also as: MSNP (invertebrates, fossils). Pisa. Italy.
MSNVE: Museo di Storia Naturale di Venezia, Venezia [Venice]. Formerly: Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Venezia. Obsolete as: MSNV, MVEN (formally replaced). Current as: MSNVE. Venezia [Venice]. Italy.
MSPGU: Zoologicheskij Muzej, Sankt-Peterburgskij Gosudarstvennyj Universitet [St. Petersburg State University (SPSU)], St. Petersburg [formerly Leningrad]. Obsolete as: MLSU. Current as: MSPGU (herps). Northwestern Federal District. Russia.
MSSA: Marine Science Station, Aqaba. Jordan.
MST: Medical School of the Governor-General of Taiwan [Formosa], Taihoku [Taipei City]. Note: established in 1899; renamed Medical College of the Governor-General of Taiwan in 1919 and Taihoku Medical College in 1922; status of herp collection cited by Oshima (1910) unknown. See also: BSRT, NTM. Taipei City. Taiwan.
MSTC: Museo di Scienze della Terra, Università di Catania, Catania. Current as: MSTC (fossils). Catania. Italy.
MSTFM: Middle School of the Third Factory Machinery, Luliang, Qujing. Also known as: private collection of W.X. Li (Li). Yunnan. China.
MSU: Mississippi State University, Mississippi State. Mississippi. USA.
MSUB: Montana State University, Biology Department, Bozeman. See also: MOR. Montana. USA.
MSUM: Michigan State University Museum, East Lansing. Obsolete as: MSU, MSUF. Current as: MSUM (fishes), MSUVP (fossils). Michigan. USA.
MSUMNH: Manonmaniam Sundaranar University Museum of Natural History, Sri Paramakalyani Centre for Environmental Sciences (SPKCES), Alwarkurichi. Current as: MSUMNH (fishes). Also as: SPKCES. Tamil Nadu. India.
MSUMZ: University of Memphis, Museum of Zoology, Memphis. Formerly: Memphis State University. Tennessee. USA.
MSUNA: Museo de Zoología “Francisco Schade”, Faculty of Agrarian Sciences, Universidad Nacional de Asunción, San Lorenzo. See also: CZCEN. Central. Paraguay.
MTCO: Muzeul Txării Crişurilor [Muzeul Tarii Crisurilor; Cris Country Museum], Oradea. Current as: MTCO (fossils). Also as: TCM (fossils). Bihor. Romania.
MTD: Senckenberg Naturhistorische Sammlungen (SNSD), Museum für Tierkunde, Dresden. Note: established in 1728 in the “Palais de Sciences” [Dresden Zwinger]; majority of zoolgical specimens destroyed by fire in 1849 during Dresden May Uprising; partially destroyed 7 Oct 1944 and 13–14 Feb 1945 during World War II; MTD combined with Museum für Mineralogie und Geologie (MMG) in 1999 to form Staatliche Naturhistorische Sammlungen Dresden which merged with Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung in 2009. Includes: original zoological collections of Universität Leipzig (MUL) transferred in 1970–1971. Current as: MTD F (fishes), MTD D (herps). Also as: MTKD (herps), SMTD (birds). See also: MMG. Sachsen [Saxony]. Germany.
MTH: Münchner Tierpark Hellabrunn A.G. [Hellabruun Zoo], München. Note: old collection destroyed in 1944 during WWII. Bayern [Bavaria]. Germany.
MTP: Fish Collection, Matsu [Mazu] Islands, Lienchiang [Lianjiang] County, Fujian Province. Lienchiang County. Taiwan.
MTSN: Museo delle Scienze di Trento (MUSE), Trento. Formerly: Museo civico di storia naturale di Trento (1922–1964); Museo Tridentino di Scienze Naturali (1964–2013). Current as: MTSN (herps). Also as: MUSE (fossils). Trentino. Italy.
MTTE: Museo de las Tierras del Ebro, Amposta. Tarragona. Spain.
MTUF: Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, Museum of Fishery Sciences, Tokyo. Formerly: Museum of Tokyo University of Fisheries (TUF), descended from the Imperial Fisheries Institute (IFI). Obsolete as: TUF, TUFIL, TUFLFB (Laboratory of Fishery Biology). Current as: MTUF (fishes). Tokyo. Japan.
MUA: Colección de Ciencias Naturales, Museo Universitario, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín. Note: collection separate from Colección de Ictiología, Universidad de Antioquia (CIUA). Current as: MUA (fishes). Also as: MUUA. See also: CIUA (fishes), MHUA (herps). Antioquia. Colombia.
MUAP: Musée Universitaire d'Archéologie et du Patrimoine, Oujda. Current as: MUAP (fossils). Oriental. Morocco.
MUBI: Museo de Biodiversidad del Perú, Cusco. Current as: MUBI. Cusco. Peru.
MUBS: MacEwan University, Department of Biological Sciences, Edmonton. Formerly: Grant MacEwan University. Current as: MUBS. Alberta. Canada.
MUCE: Mkwawa University College of Education, Department of Life Sciences, Iringa. Note: constituent college of the University of Dar es Salaam. Assigned here: MUCE. Tanzania.
MUD: Museo de la Universidad Distrital Francisco José de Caldas, Bogotá. Distrito Capital. Colombia.
MUDB: Memorial University, Department of Biology, St. John's. Newfoundland. Canada.
MUFAL: Museu de História Natural da Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Maceió. Current as: MUFAL (herps), UFAL (fishes). Alagoas. Brazil.
MUFS: Division of Fisheries Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki. Obsolete as: FLMU (Fisheries Laboratory), MUDF. Current as: MUFS (fishes). Miyazaki. Japan.
MUGEO: (see Addendum)
MUGEO: Museu Geológico Valdemar Lefèvre, São Paulo. Current as: MUGEO (fossils). São Paulo. Brazil.
MUGT: Museo de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad de Guayaquil [University of Guayaquil], Guayaquil. Obsolete as: MFCN-UG, UG. Current as: MUGT (fishes). Guayas. Ecuador.
MUHNAC: Museu Nacional de História Natural e da Ciência, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa [Lisbon]. Also known as: Museu Bocage (MB) since 1904. Formerly: Museu de Escola Politécnica de Lisboa (1837–1911) which became Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa in 1911; Museu Nacional de História Natural (MNHN) de Lisboa (1926–2011). Includes: nearly all zoological material transferred from museum of Academia das Ciências de Lisboa (MACL) in 1859. Note: original collection destroyed by criminal fire 18 Mar 1978, but historical archives largely survived; IICT collections housed at MUHNAC, but remain independent; current Universidade de Lisboa established in 2012 as merger of former Universidade de Lisboa (est. 1911) and Universidade Técnica de Lisboa (established 1930). Obsolete as: BML, MB, MBL, MNHNUL. Current as: MUHNAC, MUHNAC/MB06 (cartilaginous fishes), MUHNAC/MB05 (bony fishes), MUHNAC/MB04 (amphibians), MUHNAC/MB03 (reptiles). See also: IICT, MACL. Lisboa [Lisbon]. Portugal.
MUHNES: Museo de Historia Natural de El Salvador, San Salvador. Note: fish collection established in 1970, but damaged during earthquake in 2001. Current as: MUHNES (fishes, herps). El Salvador.
MUL: Universität Leipzig, Institut für Zoologie, Zoologische Lehrsammlung, Leipzig. Note: original zoological collection dissolved in 1968 and partly transferred to Museum für Tierkunde in Dresden (MTD) in 1970–1971. Also as: ULIZ. See also: GPSL (fossils). Sachsen [Saxony]. Germany.
MUMF: Manipur University Museum of Fishes, Chanchipur. Obsolete as: MUFM (fishes). Current as: MUMF (fishes). Also as: MUMF-Per 95 (W. Vishwanath personal collection), MUM (fishes, Manipur University Central Museum), RCMMF (fishes, Research Centre). Manipur. India.
MUPE: Museo Paleontológico de Elche, Elche. Current as: MUPE (fossils). Alicante. Spain.
MUS.FSI.PB: Museum of the Zonal Base, Fishery Survey of India, Port Blair, Andaman Islands. Current as: MUS.FSI.PB/EB (elasmobranchs). Andaman and Nicobar Islands. India.
MUS: Muzium Sabah [Sabah Museum], Jalan Muzium, Kota Kinabalu. Also known as: Sabah State Museum (SSM). Formerly: North Borneo Museum, Sandakan. Obsolete as: SBM, SM, SSM. Current as: MUS (bony fishes, herps), SMEC (elasmobranchs) with registration no. for zoological specimens preceded by NH. Sabah. Malaysia.
MUSA: Museo de Historia Natural de la Universidad Nacional de San Agustín, Arequipa. Includes: collection of Dr. Alfredo Corzo Masías from University of Arequipa Department of Zoology (UADZ). Obsolete as: U.A., UADZ. Current as: MUSA (herps). Arequipa. Peru.
MUSA: Museo de Historia Natural e Histórico de San Antonio, San Antonio. Current as: MUSA (fossils). San Antonio. Chile.
MUSM: Museo de Historia Natural, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima. Also known as: Museo de Historia Natural “Javier Prado” (MHNJP). Obsolete as: MHNJP, MHNSM, UNMSM. Current as: MUSM (fishes, herps, fossils). Lima. Peru.
MUSNAF: Museo di Storia Naturale dell'Accademia dei Fisiocritici, Siena. Current as: MUSNAF (fossils). Siena. Italy.
MUVP: Mansoura University Vertebrate Paleontology Center, Department of Geology, Mansoura. Current as: MUVP (fossils). Egypt.
MUVP: Midwestern University Vertebrate Paleontology Collection, Snyder. Current as: MUVP (fossils). Texas. USA.
MUZ PIG: Muzeum Geologiczne Państwowego Instytutu Geologicznego [Geological Museum of the Polish Geological Institute], Warszawa [Warsaw]. Current as: MUZ PIG (fossils). Mazovia. Poland.
MUZ: Department of Zoology, Monash University, Melbourne. Current as: MUZ (fossils). Victoria. Australia.
MUZM: Makerere University Zoology Museum, Kampala. Current as: MUZM (herps). Uganda.
MV: Musei Caesarei Vindobonensis, Wien [Vienna]. Note: no longer extant. Wien [Vienna]. Austria.
MVUP: Museo de Vertebrados, Universidad de Panamá, Panama City. Obsolete as: UP. Panamá. Panama.
MVZ: Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, University of California, Berkeley. Includes: specimens donated by Milton Hildebrand, University of California, Davis (UCD, now MWFB); University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV) herp collection transferred in 2009. Note: part of Berkeley Natural History Museums consortium (BNHM); fish collection associated with Department of Zoology, University of California, Berkeley (UCB) transferred to California Academy of Sciences (CAS). Obsolete as: UCMZ. Current as: MVZ (fishes, herps). See also: UCMP (fossils). California. USA.
MW: Private collection of M. Ward (herps). Australia.
MWC: Museum of Western Colorado, Fruita. Current as: MWC (fossils). Colorado. USA.
MWFB: Museum of Wildlife and Fish Biology, University of California, Davis. Note: historical collections donated in part by Milton Hildebrand to MVZ. Obsolete as: UCD. Current as: MWFB (fishes). See also: MVZ. California. USA.
MWGUW: Muzeum Geologiczne im. Stanisława Józefa Thugutta, Wydział Geologii Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego [Faculty of Geology, University of Warsaw], Warszawa [Warsaw]. Formerly: Muzeum Wydziału Geologii (1961–2008). Includes: fossils associated with IGPUW (Institute of Geology). Current as: MWGUW (fossils). Mazovia. Poland.
MWLK: Museum der Westlausitz, Kamenz. Current as: MWLK (herps). Sachsen [Saxony]. Germany.
MWNH: Museum Wiesbaden, Naturhistorische Landessammlung, Wiesbaden. Note: partially destroyed during World War II, but most types survived. Obsolete as: HLMW, MW, MWHN, NMSW, NSMW, NWNH, SMW (Staatliches Museum, Wiesbaden). Current as: MWNH (herps). Hesse [Hessen]. Germany.
MWSU: Midwestern State University, Wichita Falls. Note: fish collection transferred to University of Texas at Austin (TNHC); herp collection transferred to Texas A&M University, College Station (TCWC). Also as: MU (herps). Texas. USA.
MZ-UNICACH: Universidad de Ciencias y Artes del Estado de Chiapas, Museo Zoológico, Tuxtla Gutiérrez. Obsolete as: MZ-ICACH, MZ-P-UNICACH. Current as: MZ-UNICACH (fishes, herps). Also as: UNICACH-MZ. Chiapas. Mexico.
MZ: Stewart-Hay Memorial Museum, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg. Formerly: Museum of Zoology. Current as: MZF (fishes), MZH (herps). Manitoba. Canada.
MZB: Bidang Zoologi, Pusat Penelitian Biologi, Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia (LIPI), Cibinong, Bogor Regency. Formerly: Museum Zoologicum Bogoriense (1894–1997). Obsolete as: LBN. Current as: MZB (fishes, herps). Also as: MZB.Lace (Lacertilia), MZB.Ophi (Ophidia). West Java. Indonesia.
MZBBU: Museum of Zoology, Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai [Babeş-Bolyai University], Cluj-Napoca. Current as: MZBBU (insects). See also: ISER (Institutul Speologie, Bucharest), UBB (fossils). Cluj-Napoca. Romania.
MZBW: Muzeum Zoologiczne Branickich [Branicki Zoological Museum], Warszawa [Warsaw]. Note: established in 1887; after WWI, transferred to National Museum of Natural History (NMPW), now Museum and Institute of Zoology (IZPAN), Warsaw. See also: IZPAN. Mazovia. Poland.
MZFC: Museo de Zoología “Alfonso L. Herrera”, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (FC-UNAM), Mexico City. Current as: MZFC (herps). Also as: MZFC-HE (herps). See also: CNAR. Mexico City. Mexico.
MZFS: Museu de Zoologia da Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana (UEFS), Feira de Santana. Note: SUEFS (Sonoteca do Laboratório de Animais Peçonhentos e Herpetologia) used for sound recordings. Obsolete as: LIUEFS (Laboratório de Ictiologia, Departamento de Ciências Biológicas), MZUEFS, UEFS. Current as: MZFS (fishes, Divisão de Peixes), MZFS-DAR (herps, Divisão de Anfíbios e Répteis). See also: CIAVE. Bahia. Brazil.
MZH: Finnish Museum of Natural History, Zoological Museum, University of Helsinki, Helsinki. Also as: ZMUH (birds). Finland.
MZLU: Zoologiska museet, Lunds universitet [Museum of Zoology, Lund University], Lund. Obsolete as: MZUL, ZILU, ZML, ZMLU, ZMUL. Current as: MZLU (herps). Skåne. Sweden.
MZM: Moravské zemské muzeum [Moravian Museum], Brně [Brno]. Also known as: Mährische Landesmuseum. Obsolete as: LMB. Current as: MMB (fishes, herps), MZM Ge (fossils). Also as: MMB-Ge (fossils). Jihomoravský [South Moravian]. Czech Republic.
MZMLC: Museum of Zoology, Mayai Lambi College, Yumnam Huidrom. Manipur. India.
MZMU: Departmental Museum of Zoology, Mizoram University, Aizawl. Current as: MZMU (herps). Also as: MZUBM (fishes, Mizoram University Biodiversity Museum). See also: PUCMF. Mizoram. India.
MZNA: Museo de Ciencias Naturales de la Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona. Current as: MZNA (fishes, herps). Navarre. Spain.
MZP: Museo di Zoologia, Centro di Ateneo per i Musei, Università di Padova [Università degli Studi di Padova; University of Padua], Padova. Also known as: Museo di Zoologia di Padova. Includes: Gabinetto di Storia Naturale assembled by Antonio Vallisneri, Jr., and his father, Antonio Vallisneri, Sr.; Vallisneri collection donated to University of Padova ca. 1734. Obsolete as: IGB (Instituto Gabinetto), ZMUP. Current as: MZP (fishes). Also as: MZUP (arachnids). See also: MPG (fossils). Padova [Padua]. Italy.
MZUA: Museo de Zoología, Universidad del Azuay (UDA), Cuenca. Obsolete as: UDAR, Z00A.V.Pe. (fishes). Current as: MZUA (herps), ZOOA.V.Pe. (fishes). Azuay. Ecuador.
MZUB: Museo di Zoologia, Università di Bologna, Bologna. Includes: Collezione/Museo di Anatomia Comparata (MACB) assembled by Antonio Alessandrini (1786–1861). Obsolete as: IBI. Current as: MZUB (fishes, herps). Also as: MZ (two herp specimens attributable to Ulisse Aldrovandi collection). See also: MGGC (fossils), PP (herps). Bologna. Italy.
MZUC: Museo de Zoología de la Universidad de Concepción, Concepción. Formerly: Instituto de Zoología de la Universidad de Concepción (IZUC). Current as: MZUC (herps). Also as: IZUC, MUZUC, MZUC-UCCC. See also: CPUC (fossils). Concepción. Chile.
MZUC: Museo de Zoología, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba. Current as: MZUC (herps). Also as: CZA (herps, Centro de Zoología Aplicada). See also: CORD (fossils). Córdoba. Argentina.
MZUEL: Museu de Zoologia, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Londrina. Current as: MZUEL (fishes, herps). Paraná. Brazil.
MZUESC: Coleção Herpetológica do Museu de Zoologia da Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz (UESC), Ilhéus. Includes: Coleção Zoológica Gregório Bondar (CZGB), added in 2012. Current as: MZUESC (herps). See also: CZGB. Bahia. Brazil.
MZUF: Museo di Storia Naturale, collezioni della Sezione di Zoologia “La Specola”, Università di Firenze, Firenze [Florence]. Also known as: Museo di Storia Naturale di Firenze; Museo Zoologico La Specola. Formerly: Imperiale e Reale Museo di Fisica e Storia Naturale (IMRC, IRMC, MRF). Includes: new herpetological collection of Benedetto Lanza (NHCL). Obsolete as: IMRC, IRMC, MF, MRF, MZF, NHCL. Current as: MZUF (fishes, herps). See also: IGF (fossils). Firenze [Florence]. Italy.
MZUFV: Museu de Zoologia “João Moojen de Oliveira”, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa. Obsolete as: UFV (herps). Current as: MZUFV (herps). Also as: CHUV (herps). Minas Gerais. Brazil.
MZULG: Université de Liège, L'Aquarium “Dubuisson” et le Musée de Zoologie, Liège. Liège. Belgium.
MZUNAP: Museo de Zoologia, Universidad Nacional de la Amazonía Peruana, Iquitos. Obsolete as: UNAP (fishes). Current as: MZUNAP. Loreto. Peru.
MZUP: Museo Zoologia Pietro Doderlein, Università di Palermo, Palermo. Obsolete as: MZDP, MZP, MZPA. Current as: MZUP. Palermo. Italy.
MZUPRRP: Museo Zoológico, University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras. Note: collection separate from University of Puerto Rico, Mayagüez (UPRM). Obsolete as: UPRRP. Current as: MZUPRRP. Puerto Rico. USA.
MZURT: Museo di Zoologia ed Anatomia Comparata [Museum of Zoology and Comparative Anatomy], Università degli Studi Roma Tre, Roma [Rome]. Includes: Marco A. Bologna Collection. Note: founded in 2001–2002 in Department of Biology, transferred to Department of Environmental Biology in 2008. Current as: MZURT (insects). Roma [Rome]. Italy.
MZUS: Musée Zoologique de la ville de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg, Strasbourg. Includes: natural history collections of Johann Hermann, (purchased in 1802) and Université Louis-Pasteur. Note: partially destroyed in 1943–1944 during WWII; Université de Strasbourg separated into three institutions including Université Louis-Pasteur (Strasbourg I) from 1970 to 2009. Also as: MZS Bas-Rhin. France.
MZUSP: Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo. Formerly: Museu Paulista (MPSP). Includes: collection of Instituto de Zootecnia, Secretaria da Agricultura [formerly Departamento de Zoologia, Museu Paulista (DZSASP)] and Werner C. A. Bokermann herp collection (WCAB). Obsolete as: DZ, DZSASP, DZUSP, MZSP, MSP, MPSP, MZP. Current as: MZUSP (fishes, herps), CTMZ (tissue collection). Also as: MZict (fish tissues). São Paulo. Brazil.
MZUTI: Museo de Zoología, Universidad Tecnológica Indoamérica, Quito. Current as: MZUTI (herps). Pichincha. Ecuador.







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Richard J. Sexton